Minerals What you need to know about minerals — at a glance. Sodium Info A silvery-white mineral. A primary electrolyte — necessary for hydration of all cells. Necessary for nerve stimulation and muscle contraction. RDV 1.5 g/day (adults) Great Sources Table salt sea saltsalty foods Products REAL SALT (amazon)MORTON Coarse Kosher Salt (amazon) Sodium’s Partner Potassium Other Co-factors: CalciumMagnesiumAll mineralsVitamin CB-vitamins Sodium Symptoms Deficiency Clear urineLow body temperatureCold sweatsMuscle weaknessBrain fogDehydrationInsomniaSluggish digestionFatigue Excess Muscle crampingSweatingHigh body temperatureConstipationInability to relaxInsomniaSymptoms of low potassium To RaiseSODIUM levelS Increase sodium intakeReduce partner: potassiumDrink less waterImprove thyroid functionTherapeutic lightImprove gut healthBalanced levels of B1, Fat-solubles to LOWERSODIUM levels Decrease sodium intakeIncrease partner: potassiumDrink more waterVitamin CGeneral B-vitamin supplementationIncrease cofactors: calcium, magnesium, B-vitamins, (etc) When? Anytime In hypothyroidism, sodium may be needed round-the-clock, and especially with meals or evenings to help encourage sleep. Potassium Info A soft, white/silver, extremely conductive mineral. A primary electrolyte in the body — necessary for hydration of all cells. Essential for nerve and muscle relaxation. RDV: 1.5 g/day (adults) Great Sources: Fruitsvegetablescoconut watermilk Products SOLIMO Potassium Gluconate (amazon) This is an excellent potassium supplement. Potassium’s Partner Sodium Other Co-factors: CalciumMagnesiumAll minerals Potassium Symptoms Deficiency Muscle crampingSweatingHigh body temperatureConstipationInability to relaxInsomniaFatigue Excess Clear urineLow body temperatureCold sweatsMuscle weaknessBrain fogDehydrationInsomniaSluggish digestionHeart weaknessSymptoms of low sodium To RaisePotassium levelS Potassium-rich foods.Wise potassium supplementation.Decrease intake of partner: sodium.Drink enough water.Increase to adequate B-vitamin supplementation.Increase cofactors: calcium, magnesium, B-vitamins, Vitamin C to adequateNOTE: Statins often raise potassium levels to LOWERPotassium levels Increase intake of partner: sodium.Therapeutic light.Improve gut microbiome.Improve kidney health.Raise sulfur to adequate levels. When? Anytime Potassium pills are more effective at raising potassium levels than food. A smaller dose from pills is equal to perhaps double from food.Pills provide a much cleaner “test” of potassium’s effect than food. Dosage examples: Low dose: 1 pill/dayModerate dose: 2 pills/dayHigh dose: 3 pills/day (with meals)Max dose: 5-6 pills/day*Supplement potassium with caution — it can lower blood sugar and deplete sodium tremendously. Calcium Info A silvery-white, soft metal. A primary electrolyte in the body, necessary for hydration of all cells, metabolism, hormones, and bone health. Required for nerve stimulation and muscle contraction. RDV: 1 g/day (adults) Great Sources: Dairy Products PURE ENCAPSULATIONS Calcium Microcrystalline Hydroxyapatite (amazon)*cheaper option: SOURCE NATURALS Calcium Microcrystalline Hydroxyapatite (iHerb) *This is an excellent calcium supplement. Calcium’s Partner Magnesium Other Co-factors: SodiumPotassiumAll mineralsVitamin DVitamin KVitamin CBoron Calcium Symptoms Deficiency Muscle weaknessCold sweatsUnregulated body temperaturePoor digestionInsomniaBrain fogWeak bones & teethHormonal imbalanceLow thyroid functionFatigue Excess Muscle crampsInability to relaxInsomniaBrain fogBrittle jointsUnregulated body temperatureSymptoms of low magnesium To RaiseCalcium levelS Calcium-rich foods (dairy) -or- wise supplementation.Increase Vitamin D levels (to adequate).Maintain adequate Vitamin K levels.Maintain adequate intake of partner: magnesium.Limit phytic acid and oxalic acid. to LOWERCalcium levels Limit or avoid calcium-rich foods.Decrease Vitamin D supplementation.Limit time in sun during high-UVB exposure.Avoid sodium bicarbonate.Raise sulfur levels to adequate.Therapeutic infrared light.UVA light could help lower Vitamin D, which could lower calcium in blood.Vitamin K could lower Vitamin D — and shuttle calcium out of blood into proper locations around body (bones).Improve gut microbiome and inflammation. Improve kidney health. When? Anytime of day — Between meals Calcium supplements… Interfere with digestive juices — due to their alkalinity.Interfere with iron absorption. (This becomes desirable in hemachromatosis, where calcium & magnesium supplements can help block iron absorption).Are best taken on an empty stomach and in low doses. Magnesium Info A gray-white, light-weight mineral. A primary electrolyte in the body, necessary for hydration of all cells. Necessary for nerve and muscle relaxation. RDV: .5 g/day (adults) Great Sources: None Products DOCTOR’S BEST Chelated Magnesium (iHerb)DOCTOR’S BEST Magnesium L-Threonate (iHerb)DOUBLEWOOD Magnesium L-Threonate (amazon) Magnesium’s Partners CalciumVitamin D Other Co-factors: SodiumPotassiumAll mineralsVitamin DVitamin KVitamin CB-vitamins (B6) Magnesium Symptoms Deficiency Muscle cramps & weaknessFatigueInability to relaxInsomniaBrain fogBrittle jointsUnregulated body temperatureConstipation Excess Muscle weaknessCold sweatsUnregulated body temperatureLoose stoolsInsomniaLow blood sugarBrain fogHormonal imbalanceLow thyroid functionSymptoms of high calcium To RaiseMagnesium levelS Wise magnesium supplementation — with quality products.Maintain adequate co-factor levels: Vitamin DImprove gut & kidney health.Temporarily limit zinc intake.Quit smoking. to LOWERMagnesium levels Decrease magnesium supplementation.Increase Vitamin D levels (to optimal).Therapeutic infrared light and heat (sweating). Improve gut microbiome/kidney health.Limit B6 supplementation. When? Anytime With meals is best for some forms, while an empty stomach is best for others. The label should indicate which is best. Zinc Info A blueish-gray mineral. A secondary electrolyte in the body — necessary for hydration of all cells. Necessary for immunity, hormonal production, energy metabolism, sleep, and calcium homeostasis. RDV: 10 mg/day (adults) Great Sources: beefoysters Products SOLGAR Zinc Picolinate 22mg (iHerb)PURE ENCAPSULATIONS Zinc Picolinate 15mg (iHerb) *Smaller doses are often best for zinc. Zinc’s Partner Copper Other Co-factors: CalciumVitamin AAll mineralsVitamin DVitamin CSulfur Zinc Symptoms Deficiency Muscle weaknessFatigueInability to relaxInsomniaBrain fogNervous system deregulation Excess Muscle weakness & crampsCold sweatsUnregulated body temperatureInsomniaLow blood sugarBrain fogHormonal imbalanceLow thyroid functionSymptoms of low copper To RaiseZinc levelS Wise zinc supplementation -or- zinc-rich foods.Eat meat regularly.Maintain or achieve proper fat-soluble vitamin levels.Improve gut & kidney health. Balance with chlorophyll (the best copper supplement). to LOWERZinc levels Reduce or avoid all zinc supplementationIncrease partner: copper supplementation to optimalIncrease other co-factors to optimal (see above) When? Anytime Supplement away from copper and calcium — both of which compete with zinc for absorption Copper Info A dark, rich-colored mineral. A secondary electrolyte in the body, yet quite necessary for hydration of all cells. Necessary for immunity, hormonal production, energy metabolism, sleep, and zinc homeostasis. RDV: 1 mg/day (adults) Great Sources: liveroystersnutsShiitake mushroomslobsterchocolate Products NATURE’S WAY Chlorofresh 90pills — (iHerb)CHLOROXYGEN — (iHerb)WORLD ORGANIC Chlorophyll — (iHerb) Copper’s Partner Zinc Other Co-factors: CalciumVitamin AAll mineralsVitamin CSulfur Copper Symptoms Deficiency FatigueHyperstimulationDigestive problemsNervous system deregulation Excess Muscle weaknessUnregulated body temperatureInsomniaBrain fogHormonal imbalanceSuppressed thyroid functionDigestive disturbancesSymptoms of low zinc To RaiseCopper levelS Wise copper supplementation (chlorophyll).Eat copper-rich foods (above).Improve gut microbiome.Balance well with zinc. to LOWERCopper levels Decrease copper supplementation.Increase sulfur (to adequate levels).Increase zinc (to optimal levels).Maintain adequareVitamin C.Therapeutic infrared light and heat (sweating).Improve gut microbiome/kidney health. When? Anytime Chlorophyll is excellent with a meal or empty stomach.In deficiency, chlorophyll can sometimes help with sleep. Iodine Info A dark, purple-colored mineral that sometimes turns brown in water. A secondary electrolyte in the body, yet is necessary for hydration of all cells. Incredibly necessary for thyroid health, thyroid hormone produciton, and energy metabolism, as well as immunity, and hormonal balance. RDV: 150 mcg/day (adults) Great Sources: seaweedcoddairyiodized salt Products OREGON’S WILD HARVEST Kelp — (iHerb) Iodine’s Partner Selenium Other Co-factors: B12MagnesiumLithiumChromium Iodine Symptoms Deficiency Muscle weaknessModerate or severe hypothyroidismFatigueInsomniaBrain fogNervous system deregulationAll symptoms of hypothyroidism Excess Unregulated body temperature (esp. overheating or hot chills)Goiter, or throat tightnessHyper- or hypo-thyroidHeat intoleranceInsomniaDigestive issuesBloatingBrain fogHormonal imbalanceFatigueBurning mouthDiarrheaLow thyroid functionSymptoms of low selenium To RaiseIodine levelS Increase iodine supplementation.Eat iodine-rich foods (above).Improve gut microbiome.Balance well with selenium.Avoid bromine (ex: in hot tubs). to LOWERIodine levels Avoid iodine supplementation.Increase to optimal selenium levels.Therapeutic infrared light and heat (sweating).Improve gut microbiome/kidney health. When? MorningWith food or empty stomach If iodine is stimulating, it can disrupt sleep if taken too late in the day. Selenium Info A gray, metallic mineral. A secondary electrolyte in the body — yet is necessary for hydration of all cells. Necessary for glutathione production (detoxification), immunity, hormonal production, energy metabolism, sleep, and binding to heavy metals. RDV 10 mg/day (adults) Great Sources brazil nutssea foodorgan meats Products NATURE’S WAY Selenomethionine (iHerb)SOLARAY Selenomethionine (iHerb) Selenium’s Partner Iodine Other Co-factors: PhosphorousVitamin CSulfurChromiumZincMagnesiumVitamin E Sodium Symptoms Deficiency Clear urineLow body temperatureCold sweatsMuscle weaknessBrain fogDehydrationInsomniaSluggish digestionFatigue Excess Muscle crampingSweatingHigh body temperatureConstipationInability to relaxInsomniaSymptoms of low potassium To RaiseSelenium levelS Increase selenium intake via foods or supplementsReduce partner iodine to optimal levelsBalance co-factors to optimal (see above)Improve gut microbiome & regularityImprove liver function to LOWERSelenium levels Limit or avoid selenium foods & supplements intakeIncrease partner iodine to optimal levelsIncrease cofactors to optimal When? Morning Selenium activates many high-energy functions, and therefore may interrupt sleep if supplemented late in the day. Sulfur Info A bright yellow, non-metal mineral. Has a powerful effect in the body — for good or bad. Highly antimicrobial, critical for hormonal balance and skin health. Directly lowers and opposes many nutrients — yet is needed for glutathione production. Supplement sulfur very cautiously. RDV unknown Great Sources eggscruciferous vegetables Products NATURAL FACTORS MSM Joint Formula (iHerb) Smaller doses are often best for zinc. If you need sulfur, glucosamine and chondroitin are beneficial sources that help joints directly. Sulfur’s Partner Molybdenum Other Co-factors: Vitamin CCopperVitamin EOmega-3, -6CalciumPotassiumMagnesiumAll mineralsB12 Sulfur Symptoms Deficiency Muscle weaknessCold sweatsUnregulated body temperaturePoor digestionInsomniaBrain fogWeak bones & teethHormonal imbalanceLow thyroid functionFatigue Excess FatigueBloatingDental weaknessInability to relaxInsomniaBrain fogMuscle weaknessSymptoms of low magnesium To RaiseSulfur levelS Sulfur levels are quite easy to increase. Increase intake of sulfur-rich foods -or- wise supplementation.Adequate levels of co-factors (co-factors). to LOWERSulfur levels Sulfur levels can be difficult to lower. Avoid sulfur-rich foods and supplements.Infrared heat to support sweating.Raise all co-factor levels to optimal (see above)Improve gut microbiome and inflammation. Improve kidney health. When? Morning Sulfur is energizing and hormonally-linked — it can disrupt sleep.Sulfur is well-absorbed with food or without. Molybdenum Info A shiny, gray-silvery metal. Much like its partner sulfur, molybdenum has a powerful effect in the body — and greatly works to deplete all minerals. Directly lowers and opposes many nutrients. Supplement molybdenum cautiously. RDV 45 mcg Great Sources beansgrainsorgan meats (kidney, liver) Products THORNE Molybdenum Glycinate Smaller doses are often best for molybdenum. When? Morning Molybdenum can induce sleep when deficient, but it is so active in the body that it’s safer to take in the morning. Molybdenum Symptoms Deficiency High sulfur, sulfates, sulfitesBuild up of toxins (ex: alcohol, aldehydes)Poor uric acid formationMetabolic waste build up Excess InsomniaSeizuresWeak bonesWeak, inflammed skinUnregulated sulfur To RaiseMolybdenum levelS Increase intake of molybdenum-rich foods -or- wise supplementation.Adequate levels of co-factors (see above). to LOWERMolybdenum levels Avoid molybdenum-rich foods and supplements.Infrared heat to support sweating.Raise all co-factor levels to optimal (see above).Improve gut microbiome and inflammation. Improve kidney and liver health. Iron Info A non-shiny metal which is red (oxidized), or black (reduced). A primary mineral in the body, necessary for all bodily functions. RDV: 9mg/day (men)15mg/day (women) Great Sources: Dairy Products NATURELO Iron Bisclycinate*THORNE Iron Bisglycinate *The Naturelo has zero excipients and added co-factors to improve absorption. Lower doses of iron are often preferable and more tolerable. Iron’s Partner Manganese Other Co-factors: CopperVitamin AVitamin CVitamin DPhosphorousZincCalciumMagnesiumB1, B2, B3, B5, B12 Iron Symptoms Deficiency FatigueAnemiaLow thyroid functionDepressionInsomniaPale skinDigestive problemsPainful periodsBrain fogMigrainesImmunosuppressionRestless legsOvarian cystsUnregulated body temperatureBrain fogHormonal imbalance Excess HemachromatosisInsomniaBrain fogConstipationNauseaBrittle jointsUnregulated body temperature To RaiseIRON levelS Iron-rich foods (meat) -or- wise supplementation.Increase manganese levels (to adequate).Avoid excessive intake of certain co-factors: calcium, magnesium, zinc (etc). Especially avoid at mealtimes.Supplement Vitamin C with iron-rich meals to LOWERIRON levels Limit or avoid iron-rich foods.Increase intake certain co-factors: calcium, magnesium, zinc. Take these especially at mealtimes.Avoid Vitamin C-rich foods and supplements around mealtimes.With meals, take herbs to inhibit iron absorption: oregano, peppermint, etcImprove gut microbiome and inflammation. Improve liver health. When? Before mid-afternoon Iron is best taken with food — to prevent discomfort and improve absorptionKeep doses small, if possibleOnly take daily if confirmed iron deficiency Manganese Info A pinkish-gray metal which somewhat resembles its partner, iron. An mineral in the body, essential for absorption of iron. RDV: 2.3 mg/day (adults) DECENT Sources: whole grainsclamsoystersnutslegumesleafy vegetables Products SOLGAR Chelated Manganese 8mg (iHerb)BLUEBONNET Chelated Manganese 10mg (iHerb) *Lower doses are best. For reference, 50mg is a massive dose. Manganese’s Partner Iron Other Co-factors: All mineralsB-vitaminsVitamin ELithiumChromium Manganese Symptoms Deficiency FatigueDepressionDigestive issuesMenstruation difficulties (infrequent cycles)High cholesterolHypoglycemia Excess DepressionCognitive issuesBalance issuesMenstruation difficulties (too-frequent cycles)NauseaInsomniaOsteoporosisDizzinessDigestive issues To RaiseManganese levelS Manganese-rich foods -or- wise supplementation.Increase co-factors levels (to adequate). to LOWERManganese levels Limit or avoid manganese-rich foods.Increase co-factors levels (to adequate).Supplement Vitamin C with meals. When? Morning Be conservative with your manganese supplementation.