B-Vitamins

B1 -- Thiamin
B2 -- Riboflavin
B3 -- Niacin
B4 -- Choline

B1

Thiamin

  • Energy metabolism
  • Carbohydrate metabolism
  • Energy for nervous system, heart, brain, muscles
  • Blood sugar regulation
  • Growth, development, & function of healthy cells
  • Stored in the liver in tiny amounts
  • Short half-life
  • Created by healthy gut microbes

B2

Riboflavin

  • Carbohydrate, protein, & fat metabolism
  • Energy levels
  • Recycling glutathione
  • Converting tryptophan to niacin
  • Vitamin B6 metabolism
  • Proper homocysteine levels
  • FMD & FAN (coenzymes) production
  • Only 27 mg can be absorbed at a time
  • Important in migraine & cancer prevention

B3

Niacin

  • The function of hundreds of enzymes
  • Nearly all metabolic reduction/oxidation (for energy)
  • Maintaining gene integrity & expression
  • Affects cholesterol
  • Insulin sensitivity (blood sugar control)
  • Cardiovascular (endothelial) health
  • Improves inflammation
  • Partial precursor of essential skin barrier fatty acids called ceramides
  • Collagen synthesis
  • Has antimicrobial properties

B4

Choline

  • Cell membrane integrity (phospholipids: phosphatidylcholine & sphingomyelin)
  • Acetylcholine production (mood, memory, muscle control, brain function and nervous system function)
  • Gene expression
  • Cell membrane signaling
  • Fat metabolism
  • Early brain development
  • Methyl donor

B5

Pantothene

  • Essential for coenzyme A (anabolism and catabolism)
  • Required for fatty acid synthesis

B6

Pyridoxine

  • Necessary for over 100 enzyme reactions
  • Especially necessary for protein metabolism
  • Important for amino acid, carbohydrate, and fat metabolism
  • Required for cognitive development and biosynthesis of neurotransmitters
  • Enables glycogenolysis (turning stored glycogen into glucose)
  • Promotes immunity

B7

Biotin

  • Critical for enzymes that metabolize carbs, proteins, and fat
  • Involved in cell signaling
  • Important for histone modifications (including methylation)
  • Essential for gene regulation

B8

Inositol

  • Insulin-like properties
  • Blood sugar regulation
  • Component of cell membranes
  • Hormones controlling mood and depression (dopamine & serotonin)
  • Improves thyroid (T4) levels

B9

Folate

  • Cell division
  • Converts homocysteine to methionine
  • Methylation

B12

Cobalamin

  • Red blood cell formation
  • Neurological function
  • DNA synthesis
  • Methylation
  • Protein & fat metabolism
  • Hemoglobin synthesis

Medical Disclaimer: This information is not intended to diagnose, treat, or prevent any disease. Supplement nutrients at your own risk — they are extremely capable of affecting change within your body, for better or for worse.