A Modern Epidemic?

Is mold a major player in the widespread prevalence of chronic illness?

Let’s Demystify Mold

Mold isn’t magic. Though often hidden, it isn’t undetectable, and it’s not a mystery.

Yet when folks are unaware of how mold works, it can become those very things: invisible, mysterious and dangerous magic.

Let’s bring mold into the light.

Develop Awareness

The absolute best weapons against mold are awareness and knowledge.

Take time to gather facts, develop a strategy, and be equipped to handle any situation.

Explore the Mold section

Understand Mold


Mold is Fungus

Mold’s job in nature — as a fungus — is to break down dead matter.

Of course, nature is full of decaying things — and fungus quickly decomposes them, turning dead matter into healthy, rich soil.

Unfortunately, the buildings we live in are made using lots of dead matter, ripe to be decomposed by mold.

This means our buildings are essentially food for mold. Mold spores are everywhere — and all it takes is a little water for a spore to sprout.

“Mold growth begins when a single spore of fungus lands on an organic surface. This includes all biodegradable materials, ranging from paper to leather.


Moisture + Food

Mold needs two things: Moisture and food.

Any biodegradable material is a ready source of food for mold. Buildings are full of extremely-processed, biodegradable materials.

In fact, dust is great mold food.

Mold Spreads

Mold spreads by releasing millions of microscopic spores.  

When a spore finds moisture, it will sprout quickly.


Mold also produces “mycotoxins” as a defense mechanism — which can harm the nervous system, hormones, and the gut, and activate the immune system.

Humidity Feeds Mold

Leaks aren’t the only source of moisture that encourages mold growth.

When humidity rises above 50-60%, spores start sprouting.

As the mold absorbs moisture in the air, it swells in size to form a thin thread known as a hyphae. The hyphae quickly spread and extend across the surface, assuming conditions are sufficient for growth.”

Hyphae spread when mold is exposed to moisture. SOURCE

Mold Spores Are Everywhere In Nature

Nature is abundant with dead and decaying matter. Microbe-rich soils are a feeding ground.

Every time the door or a window opens, fungal spores fly in a building.

So what makes mold such a problem inside buildings?

“There’s never been a mold test that we’ve done that didn’t have any mold. Every house, every environment has mold spores.

It becomes an issue when the concentration of mold spores in a home is greater than what is found outside.”

Rob Hopkin of ProTec Inspection Services — Washington Post

Mold is Vigorous

Mold is a hardy organism.

Mold Can Sprout Fast

Spores can sprout almost immediately from the time moisture appears on a surface.

Mold growths, or colonies, can begin to grow on a damp surface within 24 to 48 hours.


Dead Mold Is Still Harmful

Do Not Disturb

Dead mold is full of spores which are very much still alive.

When dead mold is disturbed, millions of spores and mycotoxins are released into the air.  

Spores can survive indefinitely. Therefore, long-dead mold can very easily become living mold.

As Mold Dries Out…

As humidity falls, mold ramps up spore production to increase the survivability of the species.

Spore counts can easily escalate up to 10X normal numbers after turning on a dehumidifier.

Image result for mold on ceiling tile

This is a survival mechanism for the mold. Increased spore production means the species will better survive a temporary lack of moisture.

Increased spore counts can be harmful to health, even as the air becomes less humid and less hospitable to mold.

One of the more incorrect statements heard in the mold business: “All the mold is dead.”


Harsh chemicals, when sprayed onto mold, can cause mold to become aggressive — releasing extra spores and toxic compounds into the air.

A typical offender? Bleach, which doesn’t thoroughly kill mold and can even feed it due to its high water content.

Bleach — like other harsh chemicals — will cause mold to release increasingly noxious VOCs and mycotoxins.


Microscopic spores travel.

They cling to fabrics, float in the air, and even have sticky exteriors.

Spores from a contaminated area readily move to a clean environment — often via the humans present in moldy buildings. The longer time spent in a moldy space, the more spores collect on belongings and people.

“Most people think you have to have a water intrusion or pipe burst in order to grow mold,” Barnes said. “If you have relative humidity above 60 percent and you have organic debris, which we all have, which is dust, you can grow mold.”

Washington Post

HVAC Systems

HVAC systems inevitably become mold nurseries and spore-delivery systems over time — unless meticulously upgraded and maintained.

It only takes a couple years of neglect for these systems to become breeding grounds of microbial activity.

Without specific upgrades and cleaning, the evaporator coils, drain pan, and ductwork will almost certainly harbor mold.

HVAC Systems Age Terribly

24/7 — HVAC systems continue to collect and transport dust and mold spores throughout a building.

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Image result for dirty ducts

Modern over-powered units create extremely cooled and heated air, causing condensation to form in the ductwork. They also cool the air too quickly — thus failing to adequately remove humidity from the indoor space.

“…while mold in a house is often found on walls, floors, ceilings, carpets and fabrics exposed to moisture, one particularly troublesome hiding place is inside the ductwork and associated components of central forced-air heating and air-conditioning systems.”

Jeffrey May,
(My House Is Killing Me: The Home Guide For Families with Allergies and Asthma”)
New York Times, 2001, Jay Romano
Image result for dirty ducts

HVAC Systems are dark, hidden, dust-collecting chambers. They are extremely difficult — if not impossible — to adequately clean. They create constant condensation (on evaporator coils, drain pan, and ducts). All of these factors feed microbes — particularly mold.

HVACs at Local Nashville Locations

Mold growing out of a vent at a popular downtown music venue and bar in Nashville, TN (bathroom).  I came back a few weeks later and it had been scrubbed off — but was already regrowing.
Mold growing out of a vent at a Tennessee State Park Lodge.
Mold growing out of vent at a newly-renovated restaurant in Tennessee.

HVAC Systems Must Be Maintained, Cleaned

When HVAC systems are fully serviced every 6 months, this should include a full cleaning of the coils, drain pan, and drain line.

Ductwork should be fully cleaned every 3-5 years.

Ducts are long, narrow, inaccessible chambers and virtually impossible to truly clean after they have been contaminated by mold.

In professional cleaning, ducts are mostly just vacuumed and brushed. Removing all the dust and buildup is impossible. Some companies will spray chemicals in the duct — which is a potentially bad idea for your health.

Use a high-rated filter on the return vent — and change it every 3 months, minimum.

Install HVAC UVC Lights

UVC lights are essential to discouraging mold growth on the evaporator coils — and their installation is quickly becoming an industry-standard practice.

The bulbs can be installed inside the housing so that the coils are constantly exposed to UVC light, making mold much less likely to grow.

Unfortunately, UVC lights are best for prevention and will not totally solve a problem that’s already occurring (although they will help to some extent).


HVAC Systems Are Largely An American Phenomenon

Modern humans usually enjoy “perfect” climate control and tend to rely heavily on HVAC systems to achieve this.

Heavy use of air conditioning can cause troublesome condensation in the unit and ducts.  

HVAC Systems are less popular outside of America — with different designs commonly used (such as Ductless Mini-Splits — which are growing in popularity in America).  

Ductless Mini-Split
Ductless mini-splits cool your home without ductwork.

Ductless mini-splits operate without the need for problematic duct systems.

Instead of one large air handler that cools the air for an entire floor, ductless mini-splits place a small air handler in every room.

The evaporator coils create condensation when air is chilled, and dust can still enter the unit, so they must be fully cleaned every 6 months. Each unit has a filter which must be replaced every 3 months.

Ductless mini-splits avoid the pitfalls of ductwork. They also decentralize potential problems instead of spreading one problem to an entire building. However, they can still harbor mold inside their housing due to condensation — so they must be maintained aggressively, as well.


Modern Construction

Mold is only a problem in older, poorly-maintained homes… Right?

After all, with newer homes there has been:

  • Less time for leaks to happen
  • Fewer previous owners to make mistakes with maintenance
  • Less rainfall and humidity exposure

Unfortunately, there’s more to the story: Modern construction practices — and materials — are quite different than those of yesteryear.

In fact, in construction circles, modern homes are often referred to as “mold candy” for the following reasons.

  • Low-quality, highly-processed building materials
  • Negligent construction practices
  • Thoughtless design

Mold Sprouts On Materials Before Install

Many building materials have already developed mold before even arriving at the construction site.

These materials are then left uncovered at the building site — often in the rain for weeks or months — and then as the house is built, the materials are drenched with rain repeatedly before the roof is completed.

Then, the building’s “envelop” is installed to create the moisture — trapping the moisture on the inside and preventing we materials from drying out while allowing humidity to rise in the unfinished, unconditioned space.

OSB & “Pre-Digested” Wood Products

OSB (oriented strand board) is then used throughout the house, and drywall is installed.

OSB and drywall are prime examples of “mold candy” due to heavy processing of the materials.

Both OSB and the paper that lines drywall have very little tolerance to moisture, and quickly feed mold if they ever get even the slightest bit wet.

Construction materials are repeatedly processed to break down the wood’s fibers. This creates a highly digestible food source for mold.

OSB (Oriented Strand Board) is highly processed and is a High Risk construction material.
Image result for osb moldy
Construction materials left uncovered
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Materials are often left uncovered for months (at both the lumberyard and at construction sites) and are often moldy even before being installed.  

When low-quality materials are used in construction, it only takes small amounts of moisture or humidity to cause endless mold growth — in a new home.

All unconditioned spaces are subject to high humidity at some point in the year — in most climates, even with proper ventilation.

An ugly piece of lumbar in a new home built in my neighborhood.

New Homes Are Built “Tight”

Modern homes trap air, which accumulates chemicals, toxins, dust mite excrement, and VOC’s — while oxygen levels fall.

This air-tightness also can trap humidity inside the building’s envelope, preventing it from drying out.

New energy-efficient homes tend to be conducive to mold growth because of their tightness, which restricts air movement.” They’re too green,” said Nelson Barnes, Jr., a mold remediation expert in the. Washington area. “Houses need to breathe.”

Washington Post, October 25, 2013
  • Hot temperautres on one side of wall,
  • Cold temperatures on the other side
  • Condensation occurs inside the wall.
  • Installing studs and vapor barriers on concrete footers (or slabs) that aren’t fully dry can trap moisture inside walls (see below)
  • Larger homes mean more plumbing, and more risk of leaks
Image result for mold inside wall
Completely hidden mold, despite recent renovation.
Related image
Out of sight, out of mind.

Industry experts estimate that over 30% of *NEW* homes have mold issues. As buildings age, the number with mold only grows.

“Contractors may begin to notice mold growth on the 2×6 walls and sheeting/siding if they take the time to notice. Unfortunately, most of them will not take the time to do so.”


Is this an epidemic? Absolutely.


Problem Zones

Where Should You Look For Mold?

Anywhere moisture or elevated humidity (above 55-60%) can be found.

Older Homes

Older homes often used better materials, but time is not on their side.

More time for mistakes & accidents where water damage can occur. Even worse: water intruded and the owner did not address the problem.

Newer Homes

Most have heavily trapped air, extreme climate control (overpowered HVAC and insulation), out-of-sight-out-of-mind architectural design, and inferior modern building materials like OSB and green-board (most new buildings).


Garages develop trapped, humid air.

Moisture is frequently introduced via cars and other items. Garages are rarely kept clean. Dirty items get stored here.

Air from attached garages will always find its way inside a home — bringing down the home’s air quality.


Basements are almost always leaky. Basements have poor visibility for inspection and are visited and maintained less than other parts of a house. Basements are very risky for building health.

Crawl Spaces

Crawl spaces trap humidity and foster mold.  Bathroom exhaust fans should NOT send humid air to the attic. Even ventilated crawl spaces are exposed to high humidity in summer weather.

Attics, Sheds, Storage Units, and Boiler Rooms

These areas facilitate trapped, humid air. There’s poor visibility for inspection, and they’re rarely cleaned.

  • Cabinets — especially under a sink, where a leak can go unnoticed or humidity can rise.
  • Showers (and bathrooms in general) are extremely common problem areas as they are always damp.  Use exhaust fans during and after every shower.
  • Any use of Humidifiers introduces significant risk.
  • Washing machines can become moldy.
  • Dishwashers can become unsanitary, particularly where they drain.
  • Drains can become clogged, grimey, and they can harbor various growths.  
  • Sheds, Storage Units, and Boiler Rooms all have a high rate of mold.
Image result for crawl space mold

Preventing mold in these danger zones requires active awareness and ongoing maintenance.

Difficult To Access Means Difficult To Monitor

Don’t remain willfully ignorant: Modern comfort and convenience have encouraged an “out-of-sight, out-of-mind” mindset that, despite its societal prevalence, is remarkably unwise.

Get to know your house and other buildings!


Symptoms of Mold Exposure

One’s health status when first exposed to mold — along with the severity of the exposure — influences how well, or how poorly, someone responds to mold exposure.


Mold exposure appears to cause inflammation to rise high and remain high chronically.  

This can affect nearly every bodily function: hormones are severely disrupted, nutrients aren’t absorbed, mental clarity can be lost, sleep is broken, and blood sugar can be dysregulated.  

For every single bodily function, chronic inflammation gets in the way — and this is one way mold toxicity can affect one’s entire life.

Gut Health

Mold — with its spores and mycotoxins — has the potential to wreak havoc on gut health.  

It appears that fungal spores can take up residence in a weakened — and therefore hospitable — gut. After all, trillions of microbes per day are swallowed via the mouth.

Now, scientists have found that even in healthy people, many mouth microbes are able to reach the gut and colonize it.


Chronic inflammation interferes with gut health.  A chronically-elevated stress response is certainly damaging to gut health.

Even without the presence of mycotoxins, impaired gut health leads to overworked detox organs like the liver, kidneys and lymph system because metabolic waste and microbial endotoxins cannot be eliminated properly — winding up reabsorbed into the bloodstream, instead.  This only worsens as gut health declines and fiber becomes less and less tolerable.

When mycotoxins and VOCs from mold enter the picture, the liver’s burden on grows.

This results in worsening food intolerance over time.  As gut health declines, eating feels more and more hazardous — and for good reason: In gut dysbiosis, you are poisoning your body and causing serious inflammation every time you eat.

By contrast — in a healthy gut, good flora ferment your food and release nutrients such as B-vitamins, butyric acid and Vitamin K2, which strengthen the body’s metabolic processes.


Mold exposure can destroy sleep.  

Again, perhaps it’s the never-ending inflamed state the body exists in or nutritional deficiency from impaired gut function. Perhaps general toxicity is high, but sleep seems to always escape those suffering from toxic mold.  

During sleep, the brain dumps waste and toxins, meaning that a sleep-deprived person essentially has a toxic brain.

Lack of sleep can make it hard to think and feel emotionally grounded — making it hard to interact with others.

Chemical Sensitivity

Mold sufferers tend to become increasingly reactive to more and more environmental triggers, such as chemicals, pollution, smells, and VOCs (Volatile Organic Compounds).  I suspect this is because of the aforementioned failing nutritional absorption, rising bodily and brain toxicity, chronic inflammation, as well as chronically elevated stress hormones which can become difficult to “turn off.”

Blood Sugar Crashes

Inflammation, toxicity, and nutrient-scarcity lead to blood sugar instability.  Plummeting blood sugar is extremely common, and won’t be fixed until gut health, toxicity, nutrient stores & balance (including fat solubles, minerals, and B-vitamins), and sleep improve.  Getting clear from major exposure is critical, as well. Diet plans that avoid carbohydrates are not recommended in this state, or at all, as they do not succeed in “starving” out gut pathogens, yet do create worsened conditions in the gut.

Recovering from mold illness is a process that involves getting clear of exposure, and healing the body and mind together.  

Read more about recovery:


When is Mold Dangerous?

The Simple Answer

Mold is most dangerous when moisture is chronically present in a house.

  • Water intrusion — leaks in windows, roof, gutters, plumbing, or ground water
  • Humidity — above 55% allows mold to grow rapidly

When mold is growing, there are four variables that determine how dangerous to your health the exposure will be:

  • Intensity of Exposure
  • Duration of Exposure
  • Your Prior Health
  • Species of Mold

Intensity of Exposure

The extent of the growth, your proximity, and indoor air flow all contribute to the severity of the problem.

Extensive Mold Growth

Mold growth becomes extensive under the following conditions:

  • Heavy moisture intrusion
  • Long-term moisture intrusion
  • Low-quality building materials
  • Low-quality building design
  • Poor maintenance

How close we are to mold growth in a building can affect our exposure level.

  • Mold near the bedroom is certainly a more direct threat than out in the garage (although once in the garage, it will spread).
Cumulative Effect Of Multiple Species
  • Less-toxic molds might still be harmful if growth is heavy
  • Less-toxic molds might still be harmful if many species are present
Trapped Air
  • Poor air-exchange and trapped-air spaces can accumulate toxins rapidly
  • Modern houses are very tightly sealed, with poor air-exchange

Duration of Exposure

The more time you spend in a sick space, the more its effects build up in your system.

Were you exposed for mere days? Months? Years?

The location of your exposure can affect how much time you spent exposed:

  • Bedroom mold = 8 hours of exposure/day.
  • Workplace mold = 8 hours of exposure/day.
  • Car mold =  ?  hours of exposure/day.

A more toxic species causes harm more quickly — but most folks live in mold for months or years before they realize something is amiss.


Your Health Status

A healthy body and mind will be more resilient to environmental toxicity.

Gut health, light, sleep, nutrient balance, movement, and even your mindset are all critical factors in your overall health, and therefore, resilience to environmental toxins like mold.  

People with a weakened immune system… are more likely to get mold infections.

US Center For Disease Control (CDC)

However, great health is not 100% protective. There are plenty of stories involving healthy folks falling victim to the effects of mold exposure — especially when a building is extremely moldy.

There is some evidence that certain genes can affect how much people are affected by mold. While this knowledge may provide some clues as to why mold is affecting you, it can easily serve as a distraction from the best steps forward. In other words, you don’t need a gene test to tell you a sick building is affecting you negatively.


The Species Growing

Some species release more mycotoxins, harmful VOCs (volatile organic chemicals), and spores than others.

Most Harmful Species

  • Stachybotrys (this may be the worst of all)
  • Cladosporium
  • Chaetomiumspp
  • Fusarium
  • Aspergillus

Sometimes, worrying about the species of mold growing in your house can also serve as a distraction from what matters — controlling moisture, controlling humidity, contacting trusted remediators, or removing yourself from the exposure.

Mold Testing For Species

Proper mold lab tests identify mold species by their DNA.

Unfortunately, lab testing — while useful — can be limited and even costly. Many folks only use tests to avoid addressing mold. Others will be overwhelmed by the readings no matter their result.

Lab testing can be useful when trying to convince “higher ups” (landlords, legal entities) who are skeptical of a problem.

The unfortunate truth, though, is that a false negative is possible when testing.

If you receive test results that you feel under-report mold in a home, figure out a different test that can more accurately demonstrate what’s happening.

Mold test kits sold at local stores are almost entirely worthless. Limitations and all, the only legitimate tests are ERMI and HERTSMI tests.

Your best defense against mold?

Robust awareness of buildings.

To continue, select:

Explore the Mold section…

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